realist epistemology in qualitative research
A Realist Approach for Qualitative Research . Now, let me briefly discuss social constructionism and, more specifically, the version of the so called “strong”, “strict” or radical social constructionism (Elder-Vass 2012), which influences contemporary qualitative research in general and qualitative migration research in particular. Joseph Maxwell argues for critically applying a realist ontology to a number of important theoretical and methodological issues. startxref In this chapter, I discuss some significant limitations of various epistemological approaches which have been linked to qualitative research in general and to qualitative research on migration in particular. This is because for realists, language has, among others, referential potentialities as well and it is not conceptualized as a closed, self-referential system, but as an open one and in constant interaction with practice and the world outside it (see Archer 2000). Epistemology and Metaphysics for Qualitative Research. Explore the Methods Map. Opener. This way is to pay attention to the ontological, epistemological and methodological theses of critical realism, which integrates interpretive and causal reasoning, the notion of a mind-independent reality with moderate constructionism (Elder-Vass 2010), subjectivity with a different notion of objectivity and qualitative with quantitative methodological approaches (Danermark et al. CR evolved from the writings of the philosopher Roy Bhaskar (A Realist Theory of Science, 1975). For example, the phenomenon of deportations and the socio-political processes which are associated with it, are characterized by various aspects, some of which are more qualitative and some more quantitative in character. For example, the in-depth examination of how the capitalist crisis and the associated changes in the capitalist social and economic relations globally, especially after the 1990s, created the need for even cheaper, more precarious, more disciplined and without rights working force and, thus, to illegalization of migration, would be a necessary theoretical baggage in this kind of qualitative research practice (see Scripta 2013). 0000006648 00000 n Amelina, A., Nergiz, D. D., Faist, T., & Glick, S. N. 0000005999 00000 n Important considerations CR ontology and epistemology raise, such as the use of existing theory and critical engagement with participants’ knowledge and experience, are discussed throughout. First, it rests on the assumption that any purely objective meaning or identity is impossible. Nellhaus, T. (2001). It is assumed that both approaches to research practice face the problem of constructing "data" and are therefore subject to potential bias. Of course, it is impossible to proceed here with an adequate analysis of the whole spectrum of constructionist thinking due to space constraints and because such a task exceeds the purposes of the present chapter. Moreover, objectivity and truth for positivists are equated with and restricted to transparent correspondence of thought to sense experiences and to the formulation of universal, ahistorical “laws” (see Andriakaina 2009). The politics of migrant resistance amid the Greek economic crisis. Second, qualitative migration research is valuable in the depth investigation of how boundaries between people are constructed and become effective and how unequal power relations are enhanced and reproduced through them (see Wimmer 2008). Book; Site; Advanced. (2007). The making and unmaking of ethnic boundaries: A multilevel process theory. Manicas, P. T. (2009). In M. Archer, R. Bhaskar, A. Collier, T. Lawson, & A. Norrie (Eds.). quantitative research methods prevailed, and theory of science relied on neopositivism (Vienna Circle) or postpositivism (scientiﬁc realism). The latter are characterised by aspects and dimensions of more qualitative or quantitative character and can be approached by the respective methods or by their combination under any meta-theoretical scheme. 58 0 obj <> endobj Thus, Tsiolis (2014, p. 29), for example, directly connects qualitative methods with the interpretivist approach, adopting the extremely widespread position that the entirety of social reality is a symbolic construction. Opener. The disease of masturbation: values and the concept of disease. �J�;"����2M�&|Rh� In other words, taking an extreme subscription to either/ or a subjective/objective epistemology or a relativist/realist ontology, there emerges a pure adherence to the qualitative/quantitative research respectively. 0000003181 00000 n (2012). Rather, it examines the relational processes that are inherent both to the construction of meaning and to the construction of identity. 4. In J. Joseph & J. M. Roberts (Eds.). Qualitative and quantitative researchers examine these phenomena, offering rich descriptive accounts or precise analyses of functional relations, respectively. Outhwaite, W. (1998). Editorial: Biographical methods in migration research. The avoidance of methodological nationalism entails the focusing on the real character of social relations that exist independently of their interpretations and discursive descriptions and can be grasped under the adequate interpretations and discursive formations and, especially, those that are characterized by asymmetry and inequality. This thesis indicates the importance and emphasis that realism gives on ontology. Overcoming methodological nationalism in migration research: Cases and contexts in multi-level comparisons. Engel GL. Google Scholar. Moreover, this kind of interpretivism is totally hostile to any notion of causality in the social world and causal explanation of social phenomena and processes replacing these notions with verstehen, that is, understanding of meaning and meaningful actions of social agents. Buy in print. Migrant ‘illegality’ and deportability in everyday life. Moya, P. M. L. (2000). In C. Vargas-Silva (Ed. Migration research between positivistic scientism and relativism: A critical realist way out. This time, its relevance and utility does not concern states, administrative agencies or intergovernmental organizations, but movements and collectivities aiming to resist power asymmetries, fight anti-immigrantism (Doty 2003) and achieve freedom of movement for all people (Hayter 2004). For classical positivists, human subjectivity is excluded from the scientific endeavors of discovering absolute truths and achieving objectivity (see Leontidou 2005). play a role in the construction of sci- … Employing qualitative methods which are inherently connected with getting closer to reality (see Wengraf 2001) contribute significantly to the enhancement of this stance. Conceptualizations of qualitative methods such as this, inherently connect qualitative and quantitative methods with certain meta-theoretical and epistemological theses and, explicitly or implicitly, reproduce the unfruitful dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research (Lim and Wieling 2004; Iosifides 2011b). 80 0 obj <>stream Potter, G. (2001). Because CR principles are usually used to underpin the developmen… Methods - techniques or procedures 2. It is a notion of causality as generative and of causal powers as emergent from the relational makeup of social entities (Sayer 1992; Outhwaite 1998; Elder-Vass 2010, 2012). 0000001198 00000 n Accordingly, if you have chosen realism as your research philosophy you are advised to assume the role … The above characteristics of this version of interpretivism, which is the most widespread in contemporary qualitative research, notably the exhaustion of reality to interpretations and meanings, the abandonment of causal thinking of any manner and the almost total prioritization of agential subjectivity and action are simultaneously its greater weaknesses (see Wengraf 2001; Willis 2007) First, they do not allow for adjudicating between more and less valid meanings, beliefs and interpretations, and they do not acknowledge misunderstandings and false (not just different) interpretations (Iosifides 2011a). Realism and social science. Wimmer, A. (1) all observation and knowledge are theory mediated and that (2) a theory-mediated objective knowledge is both possible and desirable. Moreover, critical realism places causality at the center of social scientific inquiry and research of any kind, but it proposes a far more different and elaborate notion of causality from that of positivism. In this section, I offer some brief thoughts aiming to the dismantling of the dichotomy between objectivity and subjectivity in qualitative methods, using examples from migration research (Sayer 2000; Iosifides 2011b). %PDF-1.6 %���� Search form. It also investigates how securitizing discourses facilitate power-driven, unequal and unjust social relations in various spatial scales and how they are simultaneously facilitated by those relations. It is specifically concerned with the nature, sources and limitations of knowledge. Subjectivity and objectivity in qualitative migration research: here, I offer a critique to the traditional hostility of qualitative methods to the notion of objectivity – which is always equated to the positivist conceptualization of it – and I propose different and alternative notions of objectivity and truth which hopefully contribute to the dismantling of the dichotomies of objectivity/subjectivity in social research in general and qualitative migration research in particular. Methodologically, qualitative research on the field is based on the analysis of discursive practices of various social/institutional actors and, epistemologically, it has been influenced by various schools of thought, notably the constructionist Copenhagen School speech act securitization theory (see Squire 2009). Beyond the nation state and its units of analysis: Towards a new research agenda for migration studies. Toward a boundary-making perspective. 0000001119 00000 n Joseph A . – The realist epistemology in this paradigm gives rise to the constructivist research tradition, and the idealist epistemology results in the subjectivist tradition of inquiry. icon-arrow-top icon-arrow-top. I think that in the case of migration studies, this reflexivity work has to be done for the research field as a whole. In the next two sections, I proceed by discussing some more specialized and specific issues concerning qualitative migration research, placing them within the lens of critical realist meta-theory. Part of Springer Nature. In this way, this kind of interpretivism adopts a “narrow” ontological position – reality is confined to agential action governed by subjective and inter-subjective interpretations and meanings. This approach derives from the epistemological thesis according to which our knowledge of reality cannot move beyond individual and collective meanings and interpretations (see Hartwig 2007). For realists then, the social world is characterized by ontological depth that is, by a complex spectrum of phenomena, processes, mechanisms and causal powers, which may be unobservable or non-acknowledgeable but real, in the sense that they exert influences and contribute causally to the production of certain social outcomes (Cruickshank 2003). If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Qualitative research on the other hand does not expect the researcher to have a clear idea of what is being studied. When read from left to right, elements take on a more multidimensional nature (eg., epistemology: objectivism to subjectivism). In other words, I raise the issue of methodological nationalism that is equating “societies” with nation-states and viewing migratory movements as exceptional and abnormal (see Glick Schiller 2007). Specifically, epistemology is concerned with possibilities, nature, sources and limitations of knowledge in the field of study. ), Migration Letters, An International Journal of Migration Studies, Special Issue. 9 in the present Volume). 116–117), Explanatory critiques entail proving certain ideas or beliefs to be false - that is, to be antithetical to the interests of their holders -, certain social relations to be exploitative and asymmetric and, in many instances, proving the necessity of holding false ideas for the reproduction of exploitative or oppressive social relations (Sayer 2000). Having in mind that no term is neutral, it has to be noted that “migration” is usually used to describe and give special meaning to spatial mobilities of certain poorer categories of people. Englehardt TH Jr. (Moya 2000, p. 83). In M. Geiger, & A. Pécoud (Eds.). 0000003352 00000 n The other appeals to qualitative research’s grounding in particular ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions, which he describes interchangeably as interpretivism and constructivism. • Validity is not a property of methods, but of the This presupposes abandoning the so called methodological nationalist way of thinking about and theorizing migration and avoiding thinking and theorizing cross-border mobility through the lens of state and other dominant categories, discourses and interpretations (Amelina et al. I have put together this post to explain what a research paradigm is, which includes ontology, epistemology, theoretical framework and methodology, and why it is important for your research or PhD. 633-46 Abstract In the light of recent writings of Richard Pring, and in relation to the application of empirical research methods in education, this paper offers a corrective to a neo-realist viewpoint and develops a critical realist perspective. There is a consensus among researchers that critical realist is more popular and appropriate than direct realist approach due to its ability to capture the fuller picture when studying a phenomenon. The real question is how ontological, epistemological and methodological choices, either explicit or implicit, may enhance explanatory power and produce meaningful answers to research questions. What is Epistemology. Qualitative migration research inspired by critical realism integrates the study of agential interpretations of any kind, of discursive formations, and of social practices and social relations with the aim to discover real generative mechanisms which produce contemporary migratory processes. Consequently, I proceed with examining qualitative research practice on migratory processes which is simultaneously interpretive and explanatory, and avoids both the shortcomings of positivism and the traps of relativism of any persuasion (see Hammersley 2008, 2009). When it comes to the process of analysis, such an approach is thus decidedly anti-objectivist, because it is based on the assumption that ‘natural facts are also discursive facts … (Squire 2009, p. 31), There are thus two ontological assumptions on which an anti-objectivist theory of securitization is based. Thus, for critical realism, the social world is viewed as stratified and emergent, and phenomena and social processes are produced through the constant interaction between human, individual and collective agency and action, social material structures and ideational discursive formations.
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