freshwater fish adaptations

december 1, 2020

Many fish have color patterns that help them blend in with their environment. Western Australian salmon) are able to swim very fast for a long time and thus have less need for any special body protection. Stonefish, lionfish and stingrays all exhibit venomous spines. So what's a fish to do? You can learn the natural history for each species as well as some cool facts. The freshwater drum can range from gray to brown colored. Less demand is placed on the kidneys to maintain stable concentrations of blood salts in brackish or low salinity waters. tuna) and extreme manoeuvring (e.g. Tail fin of fishes and some other vertebrates for propulsion. Prey species typically have eyes on the sides of their heads allowing a wide field of view to spot predators. The fish typically weighs 5 to 15 pounds. An area that an individual or group defends is its territory. The size of a fish scale determines whether the fish is a fast or slow swimmer. Some species aggregate (group) to increase the chances of successful reproduction e.g. Although they live in the aquatic environment, fish do require oxygen. While humans can be stung by a multitude of fishes, few species are life-threatening. blowfish and white-barred boxfish), owing to their lack of manoeuvrability. This behaviour increases the chance of survival as it is harder for the predator to target one fish. Adaptations common to the three so-called big river species listed below are reduced or embedded scales (to reduce friction) and a bizarre hump occurring just behind the head (apparently an adaptation that helps the fish maintain its position in swift currents by pushing it down toward the river bottom). FISH. Once in the estuaries each species employs a different survival mechanism. Fish extract oxygen and diffuse out carbon dioxide using gills. Fishes like the darters (Percidae) and sticklebacks (Gasterosteus), may use color to attract and recognize potential mates. WCS is working to conserve freshwater fish across the boreal forest of Northern Ontario, by leading scientific field research, and by providing technical assistance and expertise to conservation partners and policy makers. The skate’s electric organs are located near the tail. Some species of fish use their spines to protect themselves. By Avery Hurt. If patterned, they usually have simple spots and speckles. Some species of fish have the ability to bioluminate (emit light). Male (left) and female (right) Western blue groper exhibit different colours. The electric rays have paired electric organs located on either side of the head, behind the eyes. Migration in animals usually occurs on a seasonal basis and is the relatively long distance movement of individuals. Behavioural adaptations may be instinctive or learned. In addition to coloration, some fish, like the sea dragon (Phyllopteryx), have body shapes that can further mimic their habitat. Figure 10. Fishes in the Fresh Waters of Florida Gallery. Finnish Environment Institute, Research Programme for Biodiversity, P.O. Most fish species give no care to their eggs or young, releasing their eggs in to the water to disperse widely with the currents, whilst some provide various form of parental care. Most light-producing fish live in mid-water or are bottom-dwelling deep sea species. Report to the Browse Joint Venture Partners. Once in the estuary fish are preyed upon by a large number of marine and freshwater fishes. They also only produce a small amount of urine. The tail or caudal fin is connected with the speed and strength of the fish’s forward movement and itsshape plays an important part. About half of fishes live in freshwater terrestrial environments such as lakes and streams while the other half live in the oceans. Animals have adaptations so that they have a better chance of surviving. stonefish, lionfish and estuarine cobbler. Sharks and rays cannot see colour. When cells are submerged into a solution of a different concentration, the law of osmosis comes into play. The larger it is, the bigger the prey it can consume. Consider the adaptations of a globefish (Figure 1) – it has spines (a structural adaptation), poisons in the skin, (a physiological adaptation) and it inflates its body to make it look bigger than it really is (a behavioural adaptation). A number of fish are known to migrate for various reasons. Coloration in fish is extremely important for their survival. Globefish (Image: Carina Gemignani). For example, some aquatic animals guard and hide their eggs (e.g. Freshwater fish tend to gain significant amounts of water through their gills and the skin over their bodies. These eels use weak electric fields for navigation, prey location, and communication. Freshwater fish produce large volumes of dilute urine, which is low in salt. Bottom dwelling, or living near the ocean floor. Structural and Functional Adaptations of Fishes Locomotion in Water To the human eye, some fishes appear capable of swimming at extremely high speeds. A poisonous substance produced by living cells or organisms; a biologically produced poison. this is due to the density of the water, which constantly shoves against the green plant In its daily life. Toadfish are a species that are poisonous to most predators. Multiple, overlapping scales provide a flexible covering that allows fish to move easily while swimming. Most venomous fish deliver the toxins through the use of a spine. Climate change threatens to disrupt the habitat and recovery and protection of some coldwater fish species, such as trout and salmon. This allows them to migrate across a much wider range (and water temperatures) than they would otherwise, and also dive to depths in excess of 500m to expand their hunting territory. A related behavioral adaptation is the strong urge of all of these larval fish to stream against current. A specific response of a certain organism to a specific stimulus or group of stimuli. For the first 199,850 years or so, their primary interest in fish was to catch and eat them. As a result, marine fish have to ‘drink’ continuously to avoid dehydration. The position of the mouth can also indicate whether a fish consumes prey from the surface (above it), sea floor (below it), or in front of it. sharks, cannot get enough oxygen in this manner and so instead swim with their mouths open, letting water pass in and flow directly over the gills. Conversely, any prey looking up at the shark, will see the light belly of the shark on the light background of the ocean surface water lit by the sun or moon. schooling, escaping, care of young and warning signals. They are separated into four groups: cartilaginous fish (such as sharks and rays), bony fish, jawless fish, and hagfish. It is also believed that these fish can use this sense to detect the electric fields they induce when swimming through the earth’s magnetic field, as a sort of compass. The positioning of the eyes is also related to the survival of the fish. Many fish may use venom as a form of defense. In some other species, e.g. moray eels and cobbler) are able to hide under rocks and among coral, where shorter, stouter-shaped fish would have difficulty in going. In the marine environment, the body fluids of fish are less salty than the surrounding environment so water diffuses out through the skin and gills. (Image: © Scott Coghlan). humpback whales. Freshwater fishes drink little water and produce copious amounts of urine. (Image: Carina Lancaster). Some species change colour as they mature from juveniles to adults e.g. There are only five native freshwater fish species found in Hawaii, referred to as O’opu by locals on the islands.Four of these species are part of the goby family, and one fits into the family known as sleeper goby.The difference between goby and sleeper goby is that goby have fused pelvic fins that create a suction disc that allows them to suction onto hard surfaces. Additionally, these eels can produce strong electric fields to stun potential prey. Fin located on the upper side of fishes and some other vertebrate animals, used for stabilisation and manoeuvrability. Marine Waters is proudly supported by Woodside. Sploop! Structural adaptations are physical characteristics that aid in survival and reproductive success. Most fish are poikilothermic, that is their body temperature varies in response to the temperature of their surrounding environment. A school of small fish may also appear to be one large animal, also discouraging predators. It is believed that they migrate and aggregate in groups of roughly the same age, size and sex. There are 53 species of freshwater fish across Northern Ontario, in 15 taxonomic families. Many fish mimic their surroundings using colouration and markings that help them to blend in with the surrounding habitat. Marine sticklebacks have undergone an adaptive radiation with freshwater forms … Living in water presents a number of problems such as maintaining salt concentrations and neutral buoyancy and this group of animals has evolved a number of ways to deal with these issues. Photos © Luiz Rocha and David Snyder. Long slender fish (e.g. These types of fish often have colour patterns and/or textures that allow them to blend in with the seabed and ambush prey. Since the fishes are able to generate the fields they detect, this is a form of active electro-orientation. They eat insects, crayfish, and small fish. Examples include: In general, deep-water fishes have large eyes, allowing them to absorb as much light as possible in the dark. Many structures in fish are adaptations for their aquatic … Western blue groper (Figure 8). Resources are free to access and use - or create an account to save and share your favourites with colleagues and friends and receive updates from our Community Education team. Researchers believe that the skate’s electric organs are used for communication and mate location. They do not swim continuously and therefore have no need to be streamlined. This adaptation and a few others have allowed the puffer fish to be around for many years. Osmotic pressure is a tendency of w… Jani Heino. toadfish). The colouration pattern found in open water animals, usually the upper surfaces are darkly coloured and lower surfaces are lighter or silvery. Kikken, N. (2018) The mysterious beast of Ningaloo Reef: revealing the secrets of whale sharks, accessed 22 April 2020, https://blog.csiro.au/the-mysterious-beast-of-ningaloo-reef-revealing-the-secrets-of-whale-sharks/#comments, Meekan, Radford 2010. The darker side helps blend in with the substrate or deeper water below, while the lighter side helps blend in with the water and sunlight above. Some marine fish have the ability to produce light through bioluminescence. pink snapper. Salmon form large schools composed of thousands of individuals (Figure 10). After spawning, adult fish migrate back to the south coast of Australia. More broadly, cold and cool water fish may be replaced by other species better adapted to warmer water which can allow non-native and/or invasive species to become established, as in the Great Lakes region. There are a wide range of shapes in between – as shown in Figure 2. Some fishes, like butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), have spots on their body that resemble eyes. A school of salmon off the West Australian coast. Large jaws signify that the fish may engulf its prey, while fish with protruding jaws can suck their prey in like a vacuum cleaner. Large groups of fish that swim together as one unit is called a school. Many fish have color patterns that help them blend in with their environment. Some fish, such as tuna, are ‘warm blooded’ and can regulate their body temperature. Living species range from the primitive jawless lampreys and hagfishes through the cartilaginous sharks, skates, and rays to the abundant and diverse bony fishes. Shallow-water fishes generally have smaller eyes. FreshWater Turtles Adaptations : Strong shell protects them from potential threats Habitat : Rivers, lakes and ponds Diet : fish, insects, frogs, fruits, vegetables, herbs and plants Turtles are an endangered species and are some times called the nice animals of bodies of water. Some fish display a form of camouflage known as countershading where the fish’s colouration is darker on the top side and lighter on the bottom side of the body. Researchers at the Friedrich Miescher Laboratory are studying stickleback fish to unravel the genetic changes which allow organisms to adapt and speciate in new environments. The Guadalupe bass is the official Texas state freshwater fish and only lives in Texas. Body shape. The position of a fish’s mouth can provide some clues to the possible diet and prey of each species. Some species of skates and rays also have electricity-producing organs. Some species of fish have the ability to change colour. Hickman, Roberts, Keen, Larson and Eisenhour (2009) Animal Diversity 5th Ed. Adaptations are genetic and evolutionary traits that are unique to a species or group of species and allow them to live in a specific environment. E.g. Blue-lined emperor. Photos © James L. Van Tassell and David Snyder. Venomous spines can have poison glands along the grove of the spine, as with stingrays, or at the base of the spine, as in some catfish. They are known to aggregate at major feeding locations around the world, including Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia and Belize on the eastern coast of Central America. Predators, on the other hand, usually have eyes closer together on the front of their head to provide better depth perception to help locate and capture prey. Species such as the jackknife fish (Equetus lanceolatus), high-hat (Equetus acuminatus) and some angel fishes (Pomacanthidae), have dark lines that run through the eyes. Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) possess an electric sense system known as the ampullae of Lorenzini. https://blog.csiro.au/the-mysterious-beast-of-ningaloo-reef-revealing-the-secrets-of-whale-sharks/#comments, https://files.woodside/docs/default-source/our-business—documents-and-files/burrup-hub—documents-and-files/browse—documents-and-files/index-of-previous-browse-studies/f30—meekan-amp-radford-2010—migration-patterns-of-whale-sharks-a-summary-of-15-satellite-tag-tracks-from-2005-to-2008_.pdf?sfvrsn=f996a7e4_2, Poster: Marine Habitats of Western Australia, Fishy Fun Activity: Who am I? RESPIRATORY ADAPTATION: FISHES Donald E. Hoss and David S. Peters National Marine Fisheries Service Atlantic Estuarine Fisheries Center Beaufort, North Carolina 28516 ABSTRACT: Changes in respiration rate (oxygen consumption) in relation to environmental alteration (both natural and man induced) may reflect how well, if at all, an organism has adjusted to a given situation. Start studying Lecture 19 - Adaptations to living in freshwater environments. Some fish, such as the flat fishes (Pleuronectiformes), can change their skin coloration to match the surrounding habitat. They work cooperatively to ‘herd’ baitfish to more easily feed. A behavioural adaptation is an action that an animal carries out to increase their chances of survival and reproduction. butterfly fish) have deep, flat bodies that are highly agile so they can move around without bumping into rocks and reefs. Physiological Adaptation of Fish to Its Environment BIO101 March 11,2013 Physiological Adaptation of Fish to Its Environment All organisms around the world are sparsely distributed depending on the environment that best suited to their modes of survival. Also, horizontal lines may be a sight-line for aiming attacks on prey. Learn what else we are doing to keep you safe. Foureye butterflyfish, family Chaetodontidae (left), and High-hat, family Sciaenidae (right). The first fish evolved about 500 million years ago. Spines – some fish have venomous spines e.g. The pufferfish is a survivalist that thrives in nearly every tropical aquatic environment. Many sharks exhibit coloration known as counter shading. Figure 7. The world record catch is 54 pounds, 8 ounces caught by … These environments differ from marine conditions in many ways, the most obvious being the difference in levels of salinity. tuna) are more streamlined and fast swimmers to catch their prey, whereas fish with large scales are typically slow swimmers in comparison. Organisms undergo adaptation – an evolutionary process where they became well-suited to a particular. A fleshy filament hanging from the mouth of certain fishes, used for sensing food in mud or sand at the bottom of a river or ocean. Armour – slow swimming fish such as a seadragon, seahorse or boxfish have a body armour made up of bony plates. We’ve provided a look into 42 species of freshwater fish—including largemouth bass, walleye, catfish, crappie, northern pike, trout, and more! A heron soars overhead and lands in the reeds a safe distance away. All fish regulate the movement of water through a semipermeable cell membrane, a process called osmosis. They have a heart to pump blood, intestines and stomach to digest food, kidneys, a liver, a gall bladder, and a spleen. As a result, they are plain-coloured creatures in blues, greys and browns. The Florida Museum is open! Hypoxia survival in fish requires a well-coordinated response to either secure more O2 from the hypoxic environment or to limit the metabolic consequences of an O2 restriction at the mitochondria. Figure 8. Most fish have swim bladders which they use to change their density, allowing them to exist at different depths in the ocean. Most bony fish have excellent colour vision and display a wide variety of colours and patterns. Evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat or changing environment. Scales help to retard this movement. Fish that live at depths of the ocean have adapted to this environment by having dense bony bodies without swim bladders. Corresponding Author. Venomous spines are found in a wide variety of fish including stingrays, chimaeras, scorpionfishes, catfishes, toadfishes, rabbit fishes, and stargazers. Pair of fins situated just behind the head in fishes that help control the direction of movement. Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications. This was used in earlier times to catch hinana in traps facing downstream. Adaptations is the lack of ridged structures in the freshwater plants. Guadalupe bass live in rivers and streams of the Brazos, Guadalupe, Colorado, Nueces, and San Antonio River basins in Texas. Fish that live in reef or coral crevices (e.g. Some species of deep sea angler fish (Lophiiformes) may use this light to attract prey, while others, like the Atlantic midshipman (Porichthys plectrodon), may use this light to attract mates. body cover, body shape, camouflage, appendages and, functional/physiological, e.g. They possess poison in glands in the body that when eaten by predators (including humans) causes illness and/or death. McCulloch’s scalyfin. Most bony fish maintain water flow over the gills by ‘drinking’ water and instead of swallowing it, pushing it out over the gills. Fish with more elongated bodies (e.g. Many types of plants and animals live in ponds because they are not In danger of being swept away by a current. Homo sapiens didn’t come along until about 200,000 years ago. A flounder has both eyes on the same side of its head because it lies flat on the sandy bottom. Masks are required at all times. Some fish are even able to change colour by altering the distribution of pigment in specialised cells called chromatophores. McGraw-Hill Publishing. Fish have many of the same internal organs as humans and other mammals. They are adapted to life in small streams and may grow to about a foot and a half long. Fish that are very active, e.g. Pertaining to the function of an organ or part, or to the functions in general. Figure 3. Associated with the surface or middle depths of a body of water. Satellite tagging of whale sharks during their seasonal aggregation at Ningaloo Reef has shown they may travel more than 2000 kilometres off the Western Australian coastline, beyond the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. The Government of Western Australia acknowledges the traditional custodians throughout Western Australia and their continuing connection to the land, waters and community. Slow-moving fish with rounded bodies are often protected by spines or armour plating, and may also have poisonous flesh (e.g. Flat-shaped fish (such as wobbegong and flounder) are benthic fish that live and feed close to the sea floor. The shape of a fish’s body tells a lot about where it lives, how it feeds and how it moves (speed, acceleration and manoeuvrability) through the water. Fish can also have disruptive markings to hide body parts. Fish have adapted to live in an enormously wide range of aquatic habitats. (Fig. Species such as the j… Western Australian salmon migrate westwards along the southern coast to the lower west coast of Australia where they spawn during autumn months. The mouth size and shape provides a good clue to what fish eat. Pacific Conservation Biology 22, 72-80. Climate change and freshwater biodiversity: detected patterns, future trends and adaptations in northern regions. The largest fish in the sea, whale sharks (Figure 11) are known to migrate very long distances, however little is known about their migration patterns. Freshwater Habitat. buoyancy, poisons and colour change; and. Adaptations are features that increase the animals’ likelihood of surviving in their habitat. Barramundi are all born male and change into females. Water diffuses through the membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution. An alligator dozes on a log. These lines may serve to hide the eyes so that other animals can not tell where the fish is looking or even if it is a fish. Freshwater fish do not have the need to ‘drink’, but they do produce large volumes of urine. With this color scheme any prey looking down on the shark will see a dark shark against a dark sea bottom, making it hard to detect the shark. In addition, many also increase their chances of survival with venom that is inflicted upon predators and/or prey as pressure is applied to the venom gland. Colouration or patterns of an animal that help them to blend with their natural surroundings. Many species of fish possess spines that aim to act as protection from predators. Some species of fish are born one sex and remain that for their life, however sex change in the fish world is not uncommon. Scales protect fish from predators and parasites and reduce friction with the water. But our judgment is unconsciously tempered by our own experience that water is a highly resistant medium through which to move. A frog jumps into the water while insects buzz and chirp. Most marine fish spend the duration of their lives, from hatching to spawning and dying, in the salty waters of the sea to which they are adapted, just as most freshwater fish spend the duration of their lives in the freshwater of rivers and lakes to which they are adapted, this is mainly because they cannot tolerate major changes in salinity. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Perth (21pp), accessed 22 April 2020, https://files.woodside/docs/default-source/our-business—documents-and-files/burrup-hub—documents-and-files/browse—documents-and-files/index-of-previous-browse-studies/f30—meekan-amp-radford-2010—migration-patterns-of-whale-sharks-a-summary-of-15-satellite-tag-tracks-from-2005-to-2008_.pdf?sfvrsn=f996a7e4_2. angelfish). Its shape provides clues about the type of swimmer it is and how it moves through the water. When parrotfish sleep at night, they often secrete a mucous sleeping bag around themselves, believed to hide their scent from predators. Skin coloration can have many functions. The shape of a fish helps it hunt prey, avoid predators and move through its habitat. Many species, including wrasse and parrotfish, are born female and upon reaching maturity, change into males. Figure 11. Scales – scales provide external protection from predators, as well as parasites and other injuries. Freshwater fish are those that spend some or all of their lives in fresh water, such as rivers and lakes, with a salinity of less than 1.05%. Fish live in a medium that is close to eight hundred times denser than air, yet some can travel at speeds of up to 100 km/h, walk in a leisurely fashion across the seabed, or maintain balance in turbulent waters. Fish body shapes can be broken up into three distinct groups– extreme accelerating (e.g. Some fish, such as the flat fishes (Pleuronectiformes), can change their skin coloration to match the surrounding habitat. The tail or caudal fin is connected with the speed and strength of a fish’s forward movement. clownfish, estuary cobbler), while some protect, feed and raise their offspring until such time that they are independent e.g. From freshwater puffers to saltwater Takifugu, these fish make use of a variety of adaptations to keep themselves safe from predators and humans alike.In addition to the famous “puffing” technique, pufferfish can also attack with their beak-like teeth or poison an enemy with the toxins that they secret. The strength of the “shock” is related to the size of the eel, with larger individuals being able to produce more of a “shock.”. Skin colouration can have many functions including camouflage, to communicate aggression or fear, attract a mate, signal territorial ownership, threaten rivals, warn of venomous spines or other defence systems. Organisms across the world show unique adaptations that enable them to survive and flourish in distinct environments. Some fish have elaborate light patterns or patterns of luminescent spots. Through this system these fishes are able to detect the weak electric fields produced by prey. Poisonous fish are those that are toxic to eat (e.g. This may allow the fish to avoid being seen by a predator. (Image: Department of Fisheries). barramundi, fish are born as males and change into females (Figure 9).Figure 9. Fish can also have disruptive markings to hide body parts. The small-toothed flounder can change its colour to camouflage in with the surrounding habitat while some species exhibit fright colours which occur when a fish is startled e.g. Norman Bradley M., Reynolds Samantha, Morgan David L. (2016) Does the whale shark aggregate along the Western Australian coastline beyond Ningaloo Reef?. Density increases the deeper into the ocean one travels so fish have adapted to live at certain depth profiles. Fish display a wide variety of colors and color patterns. Fish, any of approximately 34,000 species of vertebrate animals (phylum Chordata) found in the fresh and salt waters of the world. The fish has a deep body with a humpback and blunt snout. damselfish are fiercely territorial. Gulf flounder (left), family Paralichthyidae, and Wide-eyed flounder (right), family Bothidae. We pay our respects to all members of the Aboriginal communities and their cultures; and to Elders both past and present. These are useful in courtship displays, establishing territories or to identify the same species. The goldfish in your aquarium may be producing a third or its body weight as urine every day [3]. However, these electric organs only produce weak electric fields not capable of stunning prey. This may serve to confuse prey and predators alike. In the case of freshwater environments, some animals and plants have adapted to live where the environment is tumultuous or in some way requires traits that they do not typically need. Then, about 150 years ago, Charles Darwin showed up and began asking questions about animals and their adaptations. Bioluminescence may be used to attract a mate, attract prey, deter or confuse predators or aid sight in the dark. Fish with small scales (e.g. Area or environment in which an organism usually lives or occurs. Figure 2. Figure 5. Figure 4. Gills rely on water flowing over them to ensure maximum oxygen uptake. Colouration, markings and patterns for survival. behavioural, e.g. Fish display a wide variety of colors and color patterns. The electric eel can also produce electric fields. Fish coloration can also be useful in catching prey. The flat fish is a good example of some of the stranger adaptations. The physiological cost of dealing with differences between saltwater and freshwater is so great that few fishes can tolerate both. mulloway), extreme cruising (e.g. Skin coloration can have many functions. (demersal matching), structural, e.g. Toxins used by animals, usually transmitted by a sting or a bite. Researchers from the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute tracked a female whale shark from the eastern Pacific to the western Indo-Pacific for over 20,000 kilometres – the longest whale shark migration ever recorded. Figure 1. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. https://roaring.earth/these-are-the-deadliest-freshwater-fish Colour change may be permanent, or it may be rapid and temporary. Of whale sharks: a summary of 15 satellite tag tracks from 2005 to 2008 //136.154.202.208/home/species/2545! System consists of many tiny gel-filled canals positioned on the ventral ( lower ) side useful in prey. Animals ’ likelihood of surviving cells called photophores flourish in distinct environments provide some to. Marine conditions in many ways, the bigger the prey it can consume Anemone fishes large! 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Levels of salinity them to survive in their habitat poison in glands in the oceans keep. Adult fish migrate back to the physical makeup of a fish ’ s mouth can provide clues... Can consume also only produce weak electric fields for navigation, prey location and! Of Australia, accessed 22 April 2020, https: //roaring.earth/these-are-the-deadliest-freshwater-fish a behavioral! Foureye butterflyfish, family Paralichthyidae, and other injuries usually the upper side of its head because it lies on! Waters of the world record catch is 54 pounds, 8 ounces caught …! And/Or death tiny gel-filled canals positioned on the ventral ( lower ) side members of Aboriginal! ‘ herd ’ baitfish to more easily feed animals ’ likelihood of surviving ounces caught by … fish a! Fish ( such as the flat fishes ( Pleuronectiformes ), accessed 22 April,. Of stimuli wobbegong and flounder ) are more streamlined and fast swimmers to catch in. Luminescent spots to adults e.g that it only allows the solvent ( water to! The tail or caudal fin is connected with the water green plant in surroundings... Animals and their adaptations to shock and stun their prey swim together as unit! Lies flat on the fish patterns of whale sharks: a summary of 15 satellite tracks. Counter shading are dark on the upper surfaces are darkly coloured and lower surfaces are lighter or.... Thousands of individuals ( Figure 9 ).Figure 9 extract oxygen and diffuse out carbon dioxide using gills,... Cool facts connected with the surface or middle depths of the world record catch is 54 pounds, 8 caught!

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